Arabic 102: Lesson 1: Arabic Grammar Summary
To a certain degree, it is almost safe to say we haven't learned much Arabic grammar yet. We did mention some points though and in some cases we provided overviews.
In this summary, we are going to go, together, over what we've learned - or tried to learn- in the first level of this online course. In A102, we will be studying the main points of Arabic grammar, so you need to get prepared. A large part of this new course will depend on grammar.
Here's a summary of the most important points you are expected to know or be familiar with:
- Helping verbs: Arabic does not have a helping verb
- Definition: there is no indefinite article. Indefinite nouns may be defined by applying the al- prefix.
- Gender: there are two grammatical genders in Arabic - masculine and feminine (no neutral). Verbs and adjectives, among others, match gender.
- Number: Arabic has singular, dual and plural. Apart from gender specific, plural can be regular or broken. Declension is marked differently.
- Word order: in verbal sentences, the verb comes first. The order is verb, subject, object (or adverb)
- Pronouns: there are 14 personal pronouns: 6 3rd person (singular, dual, plural - masculine and feminine), 6 second person and 2 first person.
- Verbs: verbs, in their simplest form (past tense, sm), are the origin for many derived words. We'll deal with verb conjugation in this course.
- Word types: words are either nouns, verbs or particles.
- Declension: case endings are related to three declensions and are marked by vowels or tanwiin. Nominative, accusative and genitive are the three declensions in Arabic and are associated with Dhammah, FatHa and Kasrah respectively.
- Sentences: there are nominal sentences (starting with a noun or pronooun), verbal sentences (start with a verb) and phrases or semi sentences (a combination of a particle and noun or pronoun which does not provide a complete sentence)
- Possession: is gender sensitive and associated with pronominal suffixes
- Tanwiin (Nunation): marks case endings (declension) in nouns. Nunation has the sound of Nuun and can be either a double Dhammah, double FatHa or double Kasrah. Never put Tanwiin on a verb and never on any part except the last consonant of a noun that is not defined by al-.
- Misc.: vocative, negation, to do, to be, prepositions, particles, prohibition